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English

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Purpose

English has a pre-eminent place in education and in society. A high-quality education in English will teach pupils to speak and write fluently so that they can communicate their ideas and emotions to others and through their reading and listening, others can communicate with them. Through reading in particular, pupils have a chance to develop culturally, emotionally, intellectually, socially and spiritually. Literature, especially, plays a key role in such development. Reading also enables pupils both to acquire knowledge and to build on what they already know. All the skills of language are essential to participating fully as a member of society; pupils, therefore, who do not learn to speak, read and write fluently and confidently are effectively disenfranchised.

 

Aims

The overarching aim for English in the national curriculum is to promote high standards of language and literacy by equipping pupils with a strong command of the spoken and written word, and to develop their love of literature through widespread reading for enjoyment. The national curriculum for English aims to ensure that all pupils:

  • read easily, fluently and with good understanding
  • develop the habit of reading widely and often, for both pleasure and information
  • acquire a wide vocabulary, an understanding of grammar and knowledge of linguistic conventions for reading, writing and spoken language
  • appreciate our rich and varied literary heritage
  • write clearly, accurately and coherently, adapting their language and style in and for a range of contexts, purposes and audiences
  • use discussion in order to learn; they should be able to elaborate and explain clearly their understanding and ideas
  • are competent in the arts of speaking and listening, making formal presentations, demonstrating to others and participating in debate. 

Age Related Expectations

 

Reading:

Year 1

 

Word Reading:

• I can match all 40+ graphemes to their phonemes.

• I can blend sounds in unfamiliar words.

• I can divide words into syllables.

• I can read compound words.

• I can read phonetically decodable words.

• I can read words that end with ‘s, - ing, - ed, - est.

• I can read words which start with un -.

• I can add –ing, - ed and – er to verbs (where no change is needed to the root word).

• I can read words of more than one syllable that contain taught GPCs.

 

Comprehension:

•I can say what I like and do not like about a text.

•I can link what I have heard or read to my own experiences.

• I can retell key stories orally using narrative language.

• I can talk about the main characters within a well-known story.

• I can learn some poems and rhymes by heart.

•I can use what I already know to understand texts.

•I can check that my reading makes sense and go back to correct when it doesn’t.

• I can draw inferences from the text and/or the illustrations (beginning to).

• I can make predictions about the events in the text.

• I can explain what I think a text is about.

 

Year 2

Word Reading:

•I can apply knowledge of root words, prefixes and suffixes to read aloud and to understand the meaning of unfamiliar words.

•I can read further exception words, noting the unusual correspondences between spelling and sound.

•I attempt pronunciation of unfamiliar words drawing on prior knowledge of similar looking words.

 

Comprehension:

•I read a range of fiction, poetry, plays, and non-fiction texts.

•I can discuss the texts that I read.

•I can read aloud and independently, taking turns and listening to others.

•I can explain how non-fiction books are structured in different ways and can use them effectively.

•I can explain some of the different types of fiction books.

•I can ask relevant questions to get a better understanding of a text.

•I can predict what might happen based on details I have.

•I can draw inferences such as inferring a characters’ feelings, thoughts and motives from their actions.

•I can use a dictionary to check the meaning of unfamiliar words.

•I can identify the main point of a text.

•I can explain how structure and presentation contribute to the meaning of texts.

•I can use non-fiction texts to retrieve information.

•I can prepare poems to read aloud and to perform, showing understanding through intonation, tone, volume and action.

 

Year 3

Word Reading:

I can apply knowledge of root words, prefixes and suffixes to read aloud and to understand the meaning of unfamiliar words.

•I can read further exception words, noting the unusual correspondences between spelling and sound.

•I attempt pronunciation of unfamiliar words drawing on prior knowledge of similar looking words.

 

Comprehension:

I read a range of fiction, poetry, plays, and non-fiction texts.

•I can discuss the texts that I read.

•I can read aloud and independently, taking turns and listening to others.

•I can explain how non-fiction books are structured in different ways and can use them effectively.

•I can explain some of the different types of fiction books.

•I can ask relevant questions to get a better understanding of a text.

•I can predict what might happen based on details I have.

•I can draw inferences such as inferring a characters’ feelings, thoughts and motives from their actions.

•I can use a dictionary to check the meaning of unfamiliar words.

•I can identify the main point of a text.

•I can explain how structure and presentation contribute to the meaning of texts.

•I can use non-fiction texts to retrieve information.

•I can prepare poems to read aloud and to perform, showing understanding through intonation, tone, volume and action.

 

Year 4

Word Reading:

I can apply knowledge of root words, prefixes and suffixes to read aloud and to understand the meaning of unfamiliar words.

•I can read further exception words, noting the unusual correspondences between spelling and sound.

•I attempt pronunciation of unfamiliar words drawing on prior knowledge of similar looking words.

 

Comprehension:

I know which books to select for specific purposes, especially in relation to science, geography and history learning.

•I can use a dictionary to check the meaning of unfamiliar words.

•I can discuss and record words and phrases that writers use to engage and impact on the reader.

•I can identify some of the literary conventions in different texts.

•I can identify the (simple) themes in texts.

•I can prepare poems to read aloud and to perform, showing understanding through intonation, tone, volume and action.

•I can explain the meaning of words in context.

•I can ask relevant questions to improve my understanding of a text.

•I can infer meanings and begin to justify them with evidence from the text.

•I can predict what might happen from details stated and from the information I have deduced.

•I can identify where a writer has used precise word choices for effect to impact on the reader.

•I can identify some text type organisational features, for example, narrative, explanation and persuasion.

•I can retrieve information from non-fiction texts.

•I can build on others’ ideas and opinions about a text in discussion.

 

Year 5

Word Reading:

I can apply knowledge of root words, prefixes and suffixes to read aloud and to understand the meaning of unfamiliar words.

•I can read further exception words, noting the unusual correspondences between spelling and sound.

•I attempt pronunciation of unfamiliar words drawing on prior knowledge of similar looking words.

•I can re-read and read ahead to check for meaning.

 

 

Comprehension:

I am familiar with and can talk about a wide range of books and text types, including myths,

legends and traditional stories and books from other cultures and traditions. I can discuss the features of each.

•I can read non-fiction texts and identify the purpose, structure and grammatical features, evaluating how effective they are.

•I can identify significant ideas, events and characters; and discuss their significance.

•I can recite poems by heart, e.g. narrative verse, haiku.

•I can prepare poems and plays to read aloud and to perform, showing understanding through intonation, tone, volume and action.

 

Year 6

Word Reading:

I can apply knowledge of root words, prefixes and suffixes to read aloud and to understand the meaning of unfamiliar words.

• I use my combined knowledge of phonemes and word deriviations to pronounce words correctly, e.g. ara, ch, no, ph, obia.

•I attempt the pronunciation of unfamiliar words drawing on my prior knowledge of similar looking words.

•I can read fluently, using punctuation to inform meaning.

 

Comprehension:

I am familiar with and can talk about a wide range of books and text types, including myths, legends and traditional stories and books from other cultures and traditions. I can discuss the features of each.

• I can read books that are structured in different ways.

• I can recognise texts that contain features from more than one text type.

• I can evaluate how effectively texts are structured and presented.

• I can read non-fiction texts to help with my learning.

• I read accurately and check that I understand.

• I can recommend books to others and give reasons for my recommendation.

• I can identify themes in texts.

• I can identify and discuss the conventions in different text types.

• I can identify the key points in a text.

• I can recite a range of poems by heart, e.g. narrative verse, sonnet.

• I can prepare poems and plays to read aloud and to perform, showing understanding through intonation, tone, volume and action.

 

 

Writing:

Year 1

 

Spelling:

• I can identify known phonemes in unfamiliar words.

• I can use syllables to divide words when spelling.

• I use what I know about alternative phonemes to narrow down possibilities for accurate spelling.

• I can use the spelling rule for adding ‘s’ or ‘es’ for verbs in the 3rd person singular.

• I can name all the letters of the alphabet in order.

• I can use letter names to show alternative spellings of the same phoneme.

 

Handwriting:

• I can sit correctly at a table, holding a pencil comfortably and correctly.

• I can form lower case letters in the correct direction, starting and finishing in the right place.

• I can form capital letters and digits 0 - 9.

 

Composition:

• I can compose a sentence orally before writing it.

• I can sequence sentences in chronological order to recount an event or experience.

• I can re - read what I have written to check that it makes sense.

• I leave spaces between words.

• I know how the prefix ‘un’ can be added to words to change meaning.

• I can use the suffixes ‘s’, ‘es’, ‘ed’, and ‘ing’ within my writing.

 

Sentence structure:

• I can combine words to make a sentence.

• I can join two sentences using ‘and’.

 

Text structure:

• I can sequence sentences to form a narrative.

 

Punctuation:

• I can separate words using finger spaces.

• I can use capital letters to start a sentence.

• I can use a full stop to end a sentence.

• I can use a question mark.

  • I can use ‘I’

• I can use capital letters for names.

 

Year 2

Spelling:

•I can segment spoken words into phonemes and record these as graphemes.

•I can spell words with alternatives spellings.

•I can spell longer words using suffixes such as ‘ment’, ‘ness’, ‘ful’,‘less’, ‘ly’.

•I can use my knowledge of alternative phonemes to narrow down possibilities for accurate spelling.

•I can identify phonemes in unfamiliar words and use syllables to divide words.

 

Handwriting:

•I can form lower-case letters of the correct size.

•I can begin to use some of the diagonal and horizontal strokes needed to join letters.

•I use capital letters and digits of the correct size, orientation and relationship to one another and to lower case letters.

•I use spacing between words that reflects the size of the letters.

 

Composition:

•I can write narratives about personal experiences and those of others, both real and fictional.

•I can write for different purposes, including real events.

•I can plan and discuss the content of writing and record my ideas.

•I am able to orally rehearse structured sentences or sequences of sentences.

•I can evaluate my writing independently, with friends and adults.

•I can proof-read to check for errors in spelling, grammar and punctuation.

 

Sentence structure:

•I can use subordination and co-ordination.

•I can use expanded noun phrases.

•I can say how the grammatical patterns in a sentence indicate its function.

 

Text structure:

•I consistently use the present tense and past tense correctly.

•I can use the progressive forms of verbs in the present and past tense.

 

Punctuation:

• I use capital letters for proper nouns and the personal pronoun ‘I’.

•I correctly use question marks and exclamation marks.

•I can use apostrophes to show where letters are missing.

 

Year 3

Spelling:

• I can spell words with additional prefixes and suffixes and understand how to add them to root words.

•I recognise and spell homophones.

•I can use the first two or three letters of a word to check its spelling in a dictionary.

•I can spell words correctly which are in a family.

•I can spell the commonly mis-spelt words from the Y3/4 word list.

•I can identify the root in longer words.

 

Handwriting:

• I use the diagonal and horizontal strokes that are needed to join letters.

•I understand which letters should be left un joined.

 

Composition:

• I can discuss models of writing, noting its structure, grammatical features and use of vocabulary.

•I can compose sentences using a wider range of structures.

•I can write a narrative with a clear structure, setting, characters and plot.

•I can write non-narrative using simple organisational devices such as headings and sub -headings.

•I can suggest improvements to my own writing and that of others.

•I can make improvements to grammar, vocabulary and punctuation.

•I use a range of sentences with more than one clause by using a range of conjunctions.

•I use the perfect form of verbs to mark the relationship of time and cause.

•I can proof-read to check for errors in spelling and punctuation.

 

Sentence structure:

• I can express time, place and cause by using conjunctions, adverbs and prepositions.

 

Text structure:

•I am starting to use paragraphs.

•I can use headings and sub headings.

•I can use the present perfect form of verbs instead of the simple past.

 

Punctuation:

•I can use inverted commas to punctuate direct speech.

 

Year 4

Spelling:

• I can spell words with prefixes and suffixes and can add them to root words.

•I can recognise and spell homophones.

•I can use the first two or three letters of a word to check a spelling in a dictionary.

•I can spell the commonly mis-spelt words from the Y3/4 word list.

 

Handwriting:

•I can use the diagonal and horizontal strokes that are needed to join letters.

•I understand which letters should be left un joined.

•My handwriting is legible and consistent; down strokes of letters are parallel and equidistant; lines of writing are spaced sufficiently so that ascenders and descenders of letters do not touch.

 

Composition:

•I can compose sentences using a range of sentence structures.

•I can orally rehearse a sentence or a sequence of sentences.

•I can write a narrative with a clear structure, setting and plot.

•I can improve my writing by changing grammar and vocabulary to improve consistency.

•I use a range of sentences which have more than one clause.

•I can use appropriate nouns and pronouns within and across sentences to support cohesion and avoid repetition.

•I can use direct speech in my writing and punctuate it correctly.

 

Sentence structure:

•I can use noun phrases which are expanded by adding modifying adjectives, nouns and preposition phrases.

•I can use fronted adverbials.

 

Text structure:

•I can write in paragraphs.

•I make an appropriate choice of pronoun and noun within and across sentences.

 

Punctuation:

•I can use inverted commas and other punctuation to indicate direct speech.

•I can use apostrophes to mark plural possession.

•I use commas after fronted adverbials.

 

 

Year 5

Spelling:

I can form verbs with prefixes.

•I can convert nouns or adjectives into verbs by adding a suffix.

•I understand the rules for adding prefixes and suffixes.

•I can spell words with silent letters.

•I can distinguish between homophones and other words which are often confused.

•I can spell the commonly mis-spelt words from the Y5/6 word list.

•I can use the first 3 or 4 letters of a word to check spelling, meaning or both in a dictionary.

•I can use a thesaurus.

•I can use a range of spelling strategies.

 

Handwriting:

•I can choose the style of handwriting to use when given a choice.

•I can choose the handwriting that is best suited for a specific task.

 

Composition:

•I can discuss the audience and purpose of the writing.

•I can start sentences in different ways.

•I can use the correct features and sentence structure matched to the text type we are working on.

•I can develop characters through action and dialogue.

•I can establish a viewpoint as the writer through commenting on characters and events.

•I can use grammar and vocabulary to create an impact on the reader.

•I can use stylistic devices to create effects in writing.

•I can add well-chosen detail to interest the reader.

•I can summarise a paragraph.

•I can organise my writing into paragraphs to show different information or events.

 

Sentence structure:

•I can use relative clauses.

•I can use adverbs or modal verbs to indicate a degree of possibility.

 

Text structure:

•I can build cohesion between paragraphs.

•I can use adverbials to link paragraphs.

 

Punctuation:

•I can use brackets, dashes and commas to indicate parenthesis.

•I can use commas to clarify meaning or avoid ambiguity.

 

Year 6

Spelling:

I can form verbs with prefixes.

• I can convert nouns or adjectives into verbs by adding a suffix.

• I understand the rules for adding prefixes and suffixes.

• I can spell words with silent letters.

• I can distinguish between homophones.

• I can spell the commonly mis-spelt words from the Y5/6 word list.

• I can use the first 3 or 4 letters of a word to check spelling, meaning or both in a dictionary.

• I can use a thesaurus.

• I can use a range of spelling strategies.

 

Handwriting:

• I can choose a style of handwriting to use when given a choice.

• I can choose the handwriting that is best suited for a task.

 

Composition:

• I can identify the audience and purpose of the writing.

• I can choose the appropriate form and register for the audience and purpose of the writing.

•I use grammatical structures and features and choose vocabulary appropriate to the audience, purpose and degree of formality to make meaning clear and create effect.

• I use a range of sentence starters to create specific effects.

• I can use developed noun phrases to add detail to sentences.

• I use the passive voice to present information with a different emphasis.

• I use commas to mark phrases and clauses.

• I can sustain and develop ideas logically in narrative and non-narrative writing.

• I can use character, dialogue and action to advance events in narrative writing.

• I can summarise a text, conveying key information in writing.

 

Sentence structure:

• I can use the passive voice.

• I vary sentence structure depending whether formal or informal.

 

Text structure:

• I can use a variety of organisational and presentational devices correct to the text type.

• I write in paragraphs which can clearly signal a change in subject, time, place or event.

 

Punctuation:

• I can use the semi-colon, colon, a hyphen and a dash.

• I can use the colon to introduce a list and semi-colon within lists.

 

 

 

English Snapshots

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